Students will also be introduced to some of the aerospace pioneers that led the way to begin our This action downward creates an opposite reaction upward. MEI. Conversely, as the aircraft is slowed, the decreasing velocity requires increasing the AOA to maintain lift sufficient to maintain flight. Form drag: aircraft’s shape and airflow around it, e.g. Thinking of becoming a pilot? In fact, many lifting airfoils do not have an upper surface longer than the bottom, as in the case of symmetrical airfoils. If EO C331.01 (Review Principles of Flight, Section 2) is chosen as a complementary period, it should be Pilot's can control lift principally with two factors: Any time the control yoke or stick is moved fore or aft, the AOA is changed, As the AOA increases, lift increases (all other factors being equal), When the aircraft reaches the maximum AOA, lift begins to diminish rapidly, This is the stalling AOA, known as CL-MAX critical AOA, Figure 5-5, shows how the CL increases until the critical AOA is reached, then decreases rapidly with any further increase in the AOA, For instance, in straight-and-level flight, cruising along at a constant altitude, altitude is maintained by adjusting lift to match the aircraft's velocity or cruise airspeed, while maintaining a state of equilibrium in which lift equals weight, In an approach to landing, when the pilot wishes to land as slowly as practical, it is necessary to increase AOA near maximum to maintain lift equal to the weight of the aircraft, Taking the equation further, one can see an aircraft could not continue to travel in level flight at a constant altitude and maintain the same AOA if the velocity is increased. Lesson Overview. Principles of Flight in Action . Acknowledgements Chapter 10: Lesson planning and classroom management 2 8 Views 22 Downloads 20° AOA is therefore the critical angle of attack. Airplane flight controls (purpose, location, direction of movement, effect and proper procedures for its use), Wingtip vortices and precautions to be taken—wake turbulence. 081 Principles of flight (Aeroplane) M. 082 Principles of flight (Helicopter) N. 090 Communications 091 VFR communications O. 1/1/2014 80 81. Revision. We will learn more about how Bernoulli's principle is related to flight in Lesson 2 of the Airplanes unit. Understand the flight controls (ailerons, elevator,rudder) and their aerodynamic principles. The movable airfiols called control surfaces, are … Maneuverability: the capability of an aircraft to respond to the pilot’s control, especially with regard to flightpath and attitude. Principles of Flight in Action . Associated Activities Fun with Bernoulli - This activity focuses on air pressure and Bernoulli's Principle. This Principles of Flight Lesson Plan is suitable for 9th - 12th Grade. wing meets fuselage. 3. Ground Lesson Plan. Principles of Flight. Traffic pattern, approach and landing, go-around 17. In order to maintain its lift at a higher altitude, an aircraft must fly at a greater true airspeed for any given AOA. Engineers also use their knowledge of these principles for other projects relating to fluid flow. Mathematics and Model Rockets for Grades 5-12 Curriculum explores center of mass and center of pressure, then relates both to model rocket stability. There are four main forces involved in flight. Explore these ideas further in our article Wings and lift. 30 - Individual Lesson Plans Covering: Instrument Pilot & Certified Flight instructor-Instrument (CFI-I). These forces are lift, weight, drag and thrust. This PowerPoint introduces the basics of flying & gliding physics along with the amazing Whenever an airfoil is producing lift, the pressure on the lower surface of it is greater than that on the upper surface (Bernoulli's Principle). This is a website dedicated to CFI lesson plans.It’s great for both flight students and Certified Flight Instructors. 1. The airplanes unit begins with a lesson on how airplanes create lift, which involves a discussion of air pressure and how wings use Bernoulli's principle to change air pressure. Lift and drag also vary directly with the density of the air. Objective:Understanding of aerodynamics. The basic principles of flight, which include many elementary physics concepts, can be easily observed in the structure of an airplane. Thus, on a hot humid day, an aircraft must be flown at a greater true airspeed for any given AOA than on a cool, dry day. This lateral flow imparts a rotational velocity to the air at the tips, creating vortices that trail behind the airfoil, When the aircraft is viewed from the tail, these vortices circulate counterclockwise about the right tip and clockwise about the left tip. Preflight and control surfaces 2. These are seen in high-speed aircraft having symmetrical wings, or on symmetrical rotor blades for many helicopters whose upper and lower surfaces are identical. Understand the four forces of flight and the reasons behind why an airplane flies. The CFI, or Flight Instructor Notebook, is an instructor's guide to navigating the sea of resources in order to provide useful guidance for their students and themselves. Fluids take on the shape of their containers. Flight occurs from a combination of many physical principles, Daniel Bernoulli: fluid dynamics; increased speed creates decrease in pressure, Newton’s third law: every action has an equal and opposite reaction. Bernoulli's principle: Bernoulli’s principle helps explain that an aircraft can achieve lift because of the shape of its wings. Professional CFI Lesson Plans » Professional CFI Lesson Plans Equipment: Weather briefing 15. The lesson plan might include the main points to be covered in the lesson activities for the students to do, questions related to the topic being taught & some from of assessment for the realization of stipulated instructional objectives. Questions for you ….. Name the forces acting on a glider in normal flight. In both examples, the only difference is the relationship of the airfoil with the oncoming airstream (angle). 2. We all know that gravityis a force that pulls everything towards the Earth’s surface. Ground operations: cockpit management, engine start, runup 3. Revision 2.00. [Figure 5-8], Learn more about the effects of interference drag, Skin friction drag is the aerodynamic resistance due to the contact of moving air with the surface of an aircraft, Every surface, no matter how apparently smooth, has a rough, ragged surface when viewed under a microscope, The air molecules, which come in direct contact with the surface of the wing, are virtually motionless, Each layer of molecules above the surface moves slightly faster until the molecules are moving at the velocity of the air moving around the aircraft, This speed is called the free-stream velocity, The area between the wing and the free-stream velocity level is about as wide as a playing card and is called the, At the top of the boundary layer, the molecules increase velocity and move at the same speed as the molecules outside the boundary layer, The actual speed at which the molecules move depends upon the shape of the wing, the viscosity (stickiness) of the air through which the wing or airfoil is moving, and its compressibility (how much it can be compacted), The airflow outside of the boundary layer reacts to the shape of the edge of the boundary layer just as it would to the physical surface of an object, The boundary layer gives any object an "effective" shape that is usually slightly different from the physical shape, The boundary layer may also separate from the body, thus creating an effective shape much different from the physical shape of the object, This change in the physical shape of the boundary layer causes a dramatic decrease in lift and an increase in drag, When this happens, the airfoil has stalled, In order to reduce the effect of skin friction drag, aircraft designers utilize flush mount rivets and remove any irregularities that may protrude above the wing surface, In addition, a smooth and glossy finish aids in transition of air across the surface of the wing, Since dirt on an aircraft disrupts the free flow of air and increases drag, keep the surfaces of an aircraft clean and waxed, Drag can be intentionally caused by speed brakes, spoilers, or dive brakes, Additionally, normal procedures such as lowering flaps can increase drag, Parasite drag increases as the square of the airspeed (V^2), Thus, in steady state, as airspeed decreases to near the stalling speed, the total drag becomes greater, due mainly to the exponential rise in induced drag. In order in which they appear in my Private Pilot Syllabus. Thus, modern airplanes have airfoils that strike a medium between extremes in design. In the vicinity of the tips, there is a tendency for these pressures to equalize, resulting in a lateral flow outward from the underside to the upper surface. Identify the flight control surfaces and what they do. This chapter is a total of 34 pages and contains a complete lesson for teaching your students and FAA Examiner. There is, of course, a limit to how far the AOA can be increased, if a stall is to be avoided, The lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) is the amount of lift generated by a wing or airfoil compared to its drag, A L/D ratio is an indication of airfoil efficiency, Aircraft with higher L/D ratios are more efficient than those with lower L/D ratios, In unaccelerated flight with the lift and drag data steady, the proportions of the coefficient of lift (CL) and coefficient of drag (CD) can be calculated for specific AOA. U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration 800 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20591 (866) tell-FAA ((866) 835-5322) An airplane's aerodynamic balance and controllability are governed by changes in the CP, The production of lift is much more complex than a simple differential pressure between upper and lower airfoil surfaces. Lesson Plan Links. Flight occurs from a combination of many physical principles Daniel Bernoulli: fluid dynamics; increased speed creates decrease in pressure Newton’s third law: every action has an equal and opposite reaction CFI Notebook. As a result, the air tends to flow from the high pressure area below the tip upward to the low pressure area on the upper surface. | Privacy Policy | Terms of Service | Sitemap | Glossary | Patreon | Contact, Several books are available in digital and hard copy to help you learn more, Federal Aviation Administration - Pilot/Controller Glossary, AOPA - Aircraft Maintenance: Tips for Prop Tracking, CFI - Airplane Stall and Recovery Procedures, Instrument Flying Handbook (2-2) Review of Basic Aerodynamics, The principles of flight are the aerodynamics which deals with the motion of air and the forces acting on a body, in our case an aircraft, Understanding how these forces work and knowing how to control them with the use of power and flight controls are essential to flight, Lift is the key aerodynamic force on an which brings an aircraft to fly, Lift is produced by the dynamic effect of the air moving across an, Common airfoils include not just the wings, but the flaps/slats, and stabilizers too, Lift is most commonly thought of as acting "up," but it actually acts perpendicular to the flight path and the airfoil, This means up is relative to the aircraft, and being in a turn or even upside down changes the direction the lift vector points (a key principle in understanding, Lift always acts in a direction perpendicular to the, In order for lift to be effective, it must be a force greater than that of gravity, directed opposite the direction of gravity, It is important to note however, that lift has no reference to Earth, Creation of lift can be understood by observing, Bernoulli's Principle demonstrates that as the velocity of a moving fluid (liquid or gas) increases, the pressure within the fluid decreases, The formula shows that as the velocity of fluid (air) increases, its pressure must decrease, Relating this principle to an airfoil we see a similar shape, The rounded upper surface increases the velocity of the air which causes pressure to decrease, As pressure above the wing decreases, the relative pressure below it is higher, creating a pressure differential which we know as lift, Note: with regards to rotary-wing aircraft, lift and thrust are both in the vertical direction, Note: We say lift is created by air moving faster over the top of the wing, but more specifically, its the decreased pressure which causes lift, A body at rest tends to remain at rest, and a body in motion tends to remain moving at the same speed and in the same direction, This means that nothing starts or stops moving until some outside force causes it to do so, An aircraft at rest on the ramp remains at rest unless a force strong enough to overcome its inertia is applied, Once it is moving, its inertia keeps it moving, subject to the various other forces acting on it, These forces may add to its motion, slow it down, or change its direction, When a body is acted upon by a constant force, its resulting acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass of the body and is directly proportional to the applied force, This takes into account the factors involved in overcoming Newton's First Law, It covers both changes in direction and speed, including starting up from rest (positive acceleration) and coming to a stop (negative acceleration or deceleration), This law may be expressed by F=MA, for example, Speeding up, slowing down, entering climbs or descents, and turning, In an airplane, the propeller moves and pushes back the air; consequently, the air pushes the propeller (and thus the airplane) in the opposite direction—forward, This principle applies whenever two things act upon each other [, Lift (L) is dependent upon the relationship of the air density (ρ), the airfoil velocity (V), the surface area of the wing (S) and the coefficient of lift (CL) for a given airfoil [, The lift coefficient is a number that aerodynamicists use to model all of the complex dependencies of shape, inclination, and some flow conditions on lift, If the density factor is decreased and the total lift must equal the total weight to remain in flight, it follows that one of the other factors must be increased, The factor usually increased is the airspeed or the AOA because these are controlled directly by the pilot, The shape of the wing or rotor cannot be effective unless it continually keeps "attacking" new air, If an aircraft is to keep flying, the lift-producing airfoil must keep moving, In a helicopter or gyroplane, this is accomplished by the rotation of the rotor blades, For other types of aircraft, such as airplanes, weight shift control, or gliders, air must be moving across the lifting surface, This is accomplished by the forward speed of the aircraft, Lift is proportional to the square of the aircraft's velocity meaning that an airplane traveling at 200 knots has four times the lift as the same airplane traveling at 100 knots, if the AOA and other factors remain constant, Lift varies directly with the wing area, provided there is no change in the wing's planform, If the wings have the same proportion and airfoil sections, a wing with a planform area of 200 square feet lifts twice as much at the same AOA as a wing with an area of 100 square feet, All other factors being constant, for every AOA there is a corresponding airspeed required to maintain altitude in steady, unaccelerated flight (true only if maintaining level flight). Lift (5 min) 3. Aerodynamic force acts through this CP. PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-803/PG-001, Chapter 4. Students will be divided into four groups and witness the effects of gravity on a … Techniques of Flight Instruction; Planning Instructional Activity; Risk Management; 2) Technical Subject Areas. This is caused by deflection, which in turn causes the air to turn about the object within the air stream. Airfoil design, and aircraft stability play an important role during all phases of flight. 4. $ 35.00. Developed for students at East Coast Aero Club which operated under FAR Part 141 from July 2008 through July 2010.. Want to start training in Boston with East Coast Aero Club?Call 781-274-6322 to enroll, or email Slow flight 12. Airport Operations, Airspace, Radar Services, Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, Static stability: the initial tendency, or direction of movement, back to equilibrium, Dynamic stability: the response tendency to return to equilibrium over time. Density is affected by several factors: pressure, temperature, and humidity. For Teachers 4th - 6th. The shape of an airfoil, as well as changes in the AOA, affects the production of lift. Learning Outcome . They are shaped so that that air flows faster over the top of the wing and slower underneath. Taxiing and airport markings 4. Faster air from above the airfoil moves downward. Stalls 18. Momentum - The quantity of motion in a body is known as momentum of the body and is equal to the Lift doesn’t equal drag, Reduced drag gives the perceptible illusion of greater lift, Do not pull out of ground effect too early. Understand the use of the flight controls and trim to control the aircraft. Fundamentals of flight 8. ///////////////////////////////// ///////////////////////////////// I had a hard time finding all the resources I needed online, so I decided to make interactive lesson plans for easy reference either one on one, or in the classroom. Intro (5 min) 2. Step 2: Show the students Up, Up and Away! Aerodynamics Lesson Plan.